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Policy brief
Key messages for the ethical governance of neurotechnologies

Policy brief | 30 October 2023

In short

Neurotechnologies, delving into direct neural system interaction, needs ethical governance. This policy brief outlines recommendations for EU policymakers involved in legislation on neurotechnologies, medical devices, dual-use items, privacy, data protection, and AI systems.

To ensure ethical, legal, and fundamental rights in neurotechnology development, this brief details the following key messages:

  • Recognize and define neurorights by incorporating them within existing EU fundamental frameworks;
  • Address justice, equality, and discrimination gaps in relation to neurotechnology applications and use cases;
  • Monitor and evaluate regulatory frameworks by assessing adequacy of existing regulations for emerging neurotechnology use cases, including consumer and dual-use applications;
  • Consider Appropriate Legal Instruments to regulate neurotechnologies in the EU;
  • Clarify regulation of AI-based neurotechnologies, specifically addressing use cases under the proposed AI Act.

Find out more about each recommendation by downloading the policy brief below.


Michael J. Bernstein, Wenzel Mehnert, Masafumi Nishi, Renata Mandzhieva, Alexandra Csabi, Eva Buchinger.

Date of publication

30 October 2023

Cite this resource

TechEthos (2023) Key messages on ethical values and principles for neurotechnology development and use. Deliverable to the European Commission. Available at:


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