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National legal case studies on emerging technologies

Publication | 30 July 2022

In short

Climate engineering, neurotechnologies, and digital extended reality (XR) present many significant legal issues that impact socio-economic equality and fundamental rights. In most cases, there is only limited amount of comprehensive or dedicated national laws governing these technology families, though many elements of the technologies are subject to existing national legal frameworks.

This report explores and analyses relevant national laws in nine case studies for these three technology families: Climate Engineering in Australia, Austria and the United Kingdom, neurotechnologies in Germany, Ireland and the United States, and XR in France, Italy and the United Kingdom.

You can explore each individual case study or download the full comparative report further below.

  • Climate Engineering in Australia

  • Climate Engineering in Austria

  • Climate Engineering in the United Kingdom

  • Neurotechnologies in Germany

  • Neurotechnologies in Ireland

  • Neurotechnologies in the United States

  • Digital Extended Reality in Italy

  • Digital Extended Reality in France

  • Digital Extended Reality in the United Kingdom

    Together with TechEthos’ analysis of international and EU law and policy, this analysis will serve as the basis for future work in the TechEthos project involving the development of recommendations for the adjustment or enhancement of legal frameworks at the national and/or international level, as well as policy briefs on the possible need for dedicated legislation at the EU level.


    Julie Vinders, Trilateral Research (TRI), Ben Howkins, TRI, Nicole Santiago, TRI, Iva-Nicole Mavrlja, TRI, Rowena Rodrigues, TRI, Wenzel Mehnert AIT Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Domenico Piero Muscillo, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca Industriale (Airi), Gustavo Gonzalez, Airi, Marco Liut, Airi, Sara Morisani, Airi, Andrea Porcari, Airi, Laurynas Adomaitis, CEA, Alexei Grinbaum, CEA, Kathleen Richardson, De Monfort University (DMU), Nitika Bhalla, DMU, Lisa Häberlein, European Network of Research Ethics Committees (EUREC), Bennet Francis, University of Twente (UT), Dominic Lenzi, UT.

    Date of publication

    30 December 2022


    Draft version submitted to the European Commission for review

    Cite this resource

    Vinders, J., et al. (2022). TechEthos D4.2: Comparative analysis of national legal case studies. Deliverable 4.2 for the European Commission. TechEthos Project Deliverable. Available at:


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